CO-Horts

CO-Horts

Wednesday, May 20, 2015

Does your Bluegrass have the Yellows?

Lush, water- and fertilizer-fueled grass growth is often
light green or yellow. Clippings should be collected if
you can't mow often enough to prevent the accumulation
of clumps - which cause the grass underneath to turn
even brighter yellow!

Tony Koski, Extension Turf Specialist

You’re not the only one who has had enough! Have you noticed some yellowing in lawns in the past week or so? The precipitation and cool weather over the past couple of weeks have created some temporary (well, if the rain stops) problems for our cool-season lawns.

While there is plenty of glowing green turf out there, the persistent moisture has encouraged ample growth, especially on well-fertilized lawns - growth which may be lighter green or even yellow. Fast- growing grass leaves are often lighter green because leaf chlorophyll content is less concentrated or “diluted” by the rapid growth rate. Plus, those leaves lower in the canopy are normally more pale green – or even slightly yellow – than leaves higher up in the canopy, where light intensity is greater. When weather delays mowing and the grass gets tall, the darkest green leaves are mowed off – leaving the pale green and yellow leaves behind. When this rain stops, temperatures warm and you catch up on your mowing, growth will slow and more normal color will return.

Iron chlorosis develops in random patches. The youngest leaves
will be the brightest yellow, since iron doesn't move well
from older leaves to younger ones. Rapid growth and saturated
soil will encourage this temporary iron deficiency in turf.
The wet, cool conditions are also causing iron chlorosis to develop. The roots can’t get adequate iron from the soil to supply the rapidly growing shoots – so the turf becomes iron-deficient and chlorotic (yellow). With iron chlorosis, the YOUNGEST, newest leaves at the top of the grass plant will become deficient first. This is in contrast to the yellowing described above, which occurs on the OLDER leaves in the lower part of the turf canopy, with the youngest leaves at the top of the canopy being darker green. Persistent, severe iron chlorosis can cause the entire plant to become yellow – sometimes to the point that some plants die and the turf thins out. As soil temperatures warm and we get drier weather, the iron chlorosis we are seeing will diminish. 

Melting out disease can become a big problem in bluegrass
lawns during extended rainy, cool periods in the spring.
Melting out can quickly kill large patches of turf when
conditions are favorable: cool, moist and cloudy.
We are seeing melting out (Bipolaris sorokiniana) in bluegrass lawns now. Normally more of a problem in the Midwest and other wetter parts of the country, this fungus is turned on by continuous cool, wet conditions.  It causes small brown spots to form on leaves (similar to leaf spot disease seen on turf under warmer summer conditions – but those are caused by a different fungus, Drechslera poae) and leaf sheaths. Under ideal (cool, wet) conditions, the fungus invades crowns, rhizomes and roots of the grass plant – causing leaves to turn light green or yellow. Heavily infected plants die and turn brown. The turf yellows and thins out in patches – hence the name “melting out”. Severe melting out can cause large, irregularly shaped patches of dead turf. Advanced melting out is very difficult to control with fungicides. This disease is more common on older lawns; overseeding with newer, more resistant bluegrass cultivars is probably the most effective management tool. Also, heavy spring nitrogen use will increase the potential for and severity of this disease.

Roughstalk bluegrass (Poa trivialis) loves cool, rainy weather.
Rainy, cool weather also encourages the growth of two light green grasses in lawns: annual bluegrass (Poa annua) and roughstalk bluegrass (Poa trivialis). Poa annua is flowering profusely right now (an important allergen for many this time of the year), and Poa triv will spread rampantly in this kind of weather. Selective control of Poa trivialis in bluegrass lawns is not  possible; annual bluegrass can be controlled long term using a combination of strict cultural practices and use of Tenacity (mesotrione) herbicide.

Annual bluegrass (Poa annua) invasion is favored by cool,
rainy weather.
When things dry out and warm up, the severity of these problems should diminish – except that the Poas will never go away on their own. And I’m betting that this will be a banner year for necrotic ring spot – a root rot disease that is encouraged by overly moist soil conditions in the spring and summer. More to come on that…

And speaking of more to come….a look at the 10-day forecasts by both AccuWeather and Weather Underground are calling for rain on 9 of the next 10 days in Fort Collins.



Friday, May 15, 2015

Totally Tuber: Planting dahlias in your garden

Posted by: Alison O'Connor, Larimer County Extension

I'm stepping up my game this year at the Larimer County Fair. I've entered nearly every year since I started working for Extension and love the competition, the judges' remarks and the sheer chaos of entry day. But I've never entered much in the Open Class Flower Show, primarily because I don't feel my flowers are worthy. Insect damage, bleached petals and misshapen foliage does not make the cut in our judge's eyes. Plus, there are really, really good flower growers and they actually know what they're doing.

But this year I bought dahlias. I grew a few several years ago and they were surprisingly easy, low-maintenance plants. But I had tucked them in a bed on the side of the house and didn't enjoy them much. Then I got an email from an Oregon dahlia company..."Sale! 50% off! Buy dahlias now!" So I did.

For those who haven't attempted the "summer-blooming bulbs", here's a quick lesson in planting dahlias. Don't be scared--they're really no different than a daffodil or tulip. Yes, they do need to be dug from the ground in fall (they are not winter hardy in Colorado), but properly stored and cared for, dahlias (and their folk) can last for years.

I purchased a mix of flowers from the "Cut Flower Collection" and also a group from the "Itsy Bitsy Collection". I figure that by the time the Fair rolls around, I should have enough flowers to scrape together an arrangement. And the names are the best part! Some of my cultivars include 'Bride to Be', 'Lights Out', 'Bambino' and 'Angels of 7A'.
Each tuber comes stamped with the variety name.
First of all, read the instructions sent by the grower. They know what they're doing and what's best for their plants. One of my favorite things about dahlias is that they don't need to be watered following planting--only after sprouts appear above the soil surface.
Planting instructions attached to the dahlias.
Carefully inspect your tubers and make sure they are firm without any signs of rot. If they have sprouted, you can snip back the new growth to a length of one inch. This will not hurt the dahlias and will actually encourage better growth.
Cut back new growth to 1" in length.
I have a sunny location in my garden where all the plants died over the winter (except for the silver lace vine, which nothing can kill). A perfect location for the dahlias. I raked back the mulch, squealed at the amount of worms I found and started digging. Dahlias need to be planted flat on their side 6" deep and 18-24" apart. The plants can get quite large at maturity (anywhere from 12" to 5+ feet; taller plants will need staking) so proper spacing is necessary.
Pulling back the mulch to expose the soil.
Plant dahlias flat on their side in a 6" deep hole. Space tubers 18-24" apart.
Digging each hole was getting cumbersome, so I stepped up production and dug a trench and placed the tubers, properly spaced, in the trench.
The dahlias are planted and ready to cover with soil.
Now, because I always forget where I plant my bulbs, I decided to mark where they were planted with a golf tee. (Of which I have many on hand.)
Handy dandy golf tees to mark where the tubers were planted.

We have a new addition to our household, Maple. She is a rescued research beagle from Colorado State University and she is ALL PUPPY. Curious about everything and learns something new about the world every day. I didn't realize she would have such an interest in the dahlia tubers. I should have known. Now I'm worried that she may be inclined to dig them up, so I bought some fencing.
Maple meeting a tuber for the first time.
I covered all the tubers with soil, added mulch (in a thin layer) across the planting areas and marked each one with a golf tee. Now I just have to wait a few weeks for growth. Let's hope it stops raining.

And if you don't have garden space, dahlias can easily be grown in containers. Just follow the same spacing and depth requirements mentioned above. Also consider the mature size of the plant and your container size--ensure it's big enough to support the plant at maturity (generally a 12" by 12" container will be large enough). Cover the tuber with a few inches of soil and water it in. Be careful about watering until growth starts...but don't let the potting media dry out. Also make sure your media is well drained so the tubers don't rot. You'll also need to fertilize throughout the summer.

Dahlias are great container flowers. Just make sure your container is large enough to support the plant when full grown.
Later this fall, I'll be sure to post about what to do to harvest and keep your dahlias for next year. I'm sure Maple will be a great helper. For the official CSU Extension Fact Sheet on summer-blooming bulbs, click here.
Maple requested the pansies.
I'll remove them as the weather gets too hot and just allow the dahlia to grow.

Wednesday, May 13, 2015

Western Spruce Budworm Outbreak Potential

Posted by:  Mark J. Platten, Teller County Extension Director



The western spruce budworm (WSBW), Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, is the most widely distributed and destructive forest defoliator in western North America.  An outbreak has been prevalent throughout Teller and several adjacent counties the past three-to-four years and is likely to continue into 2015.  Their primary host is the Douglas-fir, although they will also be found on white fir, Engelmann spruce, blue spruce, and subalpine fir. 

The budworm larvae emerge from their hibernacula in early May through late June and begin feeding on old needles until the new buds emerge and then they feed on the new growth, hence their name.  They emerge as tiny larvae, approximately 1/8-1/4 inch, with yellowish-green bodies and a brown head. 
Juvenile Larvae
As the new needles continue to lengthen, the rapidly developing larvae continue to feed.  It is during this phase that most of the damage occurs when they loosely web the new foliage together, feeding in relative protection from predators.  You may not even notice them until they drop, or hang, from the affected trees, attached by what appears to be spider-like threads. 

Webbing of New Tips

They go through six stages of growth with the final larvae between 1-1.25 inches in length, with tan or light-brown heads, and brownish-olive bodies.  Each mature body segment has two conspicuous pairs of white spots. 

Mature Larvae

This process of growth takes approximately 40 days, at which time the larvae pupates and the adult moths emerge 7-10 days later. 

Pupal Casing

Some of the first moths emerged last year in Teller County the middle of July.  

Western Spruce Budworm Moth


After mating, the females lay masses of overlapping, green eggs on the undersides of host tree needles.  The young larvae hatch in approximately 10 days and move to crevices under bark scales, or lichen, where they spin silken hibernacula and overwinter.  This completes their cycle, with one generation per year. 
  
The greatest impact to mature trees is reduced growth because new needles photosynthesize more efficiently than mature needles.  Multiple years of defoliation can lead to branch tip loss, top death, and even tree mortality.  Saplings and young stands directly beneath the mature host trees are especially affected when the larvae disperse from above.

Tip Defoliation


Even if the WSBW doesn’t kill your trees, the injury and stress will make your trees more susceptible to secondary infestations of Douglas-fir beetles and other insects/diseases, which may lead to the death of your trees. 

Control:
In most years, the natural predation via arachnids, parasites, climate, and birds will keep them in check.  Adverse weather conditions, especially sudden freezes toward the end of May when the larvae have just emerged, could kill a significant portion of the larvae.  Unfortunately, with our relatively mild winters over the past decade, this may not be likely.  With three plus years of fairly heavy outbreaks in the area, you may want to consider other measures.

Cultural practices such as thinning, watering, and fertilizing enhance tree vigor, which may help them withstand repeated attacks.  Chemical control is often used to protect high-value trees, much the same way as we protect against mountain pine beetles.  For more information on chemical use, please see Washington State University Extension’s Forest Health Note:  http://ext.nrs.wsu.edu/forestryext/foresthealth/notes/westernbudworm.htm  One successful control agent is a naturally-occurring bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis, or B.t.  It is specific to larvae without having any adverse effects on the environment.  See the CSU Extension Fact Sheet http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/insect/05556.html for more information on B.t.

It is often cost prohibitive to spray your entire property, especially if you have large parcels of land; although, there are several subdivisions in the region that have conducted aerial spraying.  There tends to be a minimum number of acres required by the aerial operators.  In Teller County, it is 450 acres minimum with a cost around $55 per acre.   

Even with aerial spraying, only the top of the canopy is covered. Between spraying and predation, hopefully the outbreak can be put in check and most of the trees saved.  Whether conducting individual or aerial control, the best time to spray is the two-to-three weeks following bud break, generally occurring early, to mid, June.
  
For a list of forest contractors who may be qualified to spray your individual trees, please contact your local Extension office, or the Colorado State Forest Service http://csfs.colostate.edu/districts/

Thursday, May 7, 2015

Soil Temperatures, Frosts and Planting Dates

Posted by Eric Hammond Adams County
 
 
As the first week of May comes to a close, impatient gardeners everywhere are asking, “Is it time to plant my tomatoes yet”? The answer to this question is probably, “Not just yet”.   

Appropriate planting times for vegetables are based on both air and soil temperatures.  Air temperature is fairly straightforward.  While cool season crops will tolerate varying degrees of cold weather, most warm season crops, like tomatoes, squash and peppers are tender - meaning they will not tolerate a frost.   It’s not difficult to look at the forecast and see if there is potential for freezing temperatures.  In fact, in my neck of the woods it looks like there is a good chance that we are going to have frost Monday morning.   However, even if the air temperature is not prohibitively cold, you also have to take soil temperatures into account.

The soil in my raised beds was around 52°F
this morning
If soil is too cold seeds may not germinate and transplants may be slow to establish and grow.  Ideal soil temperatures range from 45°F for crops like spinach or Fava beans to 70°F for many squash and melons.   Tomato transplants prefer a temperature between 60 -65°F.   I measured the temperature of the soil in my raised beds all week and temperatures ranged from 50°F to 52°F.  So, at least in my garden, the soil is too cool for tomatoes and many other warm season crops. 
 
 
The recent rains which have saturated Front Range soils will mean that they will be slower to warm, as more energy is needed to warm both the solid components of the soil and the water the soil is now holding, than would be required to warm the solid components alone if were dry.




Soil Thermometer
Soil temperature can easily be measured with a thermometer.  They make specialized soil thermometers which you can purchase at many local garden centers or online.   You can also use a meat thermometer, though if you do I would recommend designating it as your full-time soil thermometer, retiring it from duty in the kitchen and buying a new one for your meats.  To measure the soil temperature for plant growth, insert the thermometer around 4 inches into the soil.  Temperature should be measured early in the morning, when the soil is its coolest, and you may want to take measurements from several locations. 

 
Insert the thermometer to a depth of about 4 inches
As mentioned in a previous blog, there are several ways you can speed the warming of soil in the spring, ranging from building raised beds to covering your beds with plastic.  

 
It’s not quite time to plant most warm season crops quite yet.  So, all you tomato junkies out there, watch the forecast for potential frosts, check your soil temperature and bide your time.  You’re almost there.

Sunday, May 3, 2015

Plant Select Perennials


Posted by Deana Wise, Broomfield County Extension

Easy Perennials


            I have worked in the grounds maintenance field in one capacity or another for many years (I won’t be more specific, please don’t ask). In my younger days, I took on every plant dare that came my way. The experts said a plant would not survive here; I took that as a personal challenge to prove them wrong. Over time I have learned two things, 1) sometimes plants survive despite our best efforts to kill them and 2) sometimes plants die even when we meet all of their outrageous demands.

            Now that I am a little older and move a little slower, I have chosen to do things the easy way. I now select plants that will perform the best with the least amount of effort on my part. A great resource to aid me in my search is the Plant Select รข program (www.plantselect.org. ).

 Plant Select, created in 1997, is a cooperative work between Colorado State University, Denver Botanic Gardens, and many participants from the Nursery and Landscape communities. This popular program trials new plant varieties to determine their suitability for Colorado gardens. If the plants are deemed fit, they are actively cultivated and sold through local nurseries and greenhouses with the Plant Select label. New plants are introduced every year so it pays to check back every spring.

The web site lists: Plant Type, Height, Width, Flowering Season, Flower color, Sun, Water Needs, Hardiness Zone, Soil Type, Deer Resistance ,Good for Pollinators, Winter Interest, and Year Introduced in Plant Select. The color pictures are awesome. A few designs by leading architects are included as a place to start.

One of my favorite Plant Select inductees is the SILVER BLADE® Evening Primrose-Oenothera macrocarpa subsp. incana. Listed as “A southern Great Plains endemic introduced by James Locklear, further promoted by Bluebird Nursery, Clarkson, Nebraska. Silver leaves compliment the clear yellow flowers. Best on well drained sites. Blooms May to frost. Drought tolerant. Perennial. Xeriscape”. Season long blooming, perennial, not terribly invasive and drought tolerant. A perfect plant for our area (except for the well-drained part). This plant will thrive if it is not overwatered.


Oenothera macrocarpa subsp. incana,http://wwwplants.usda.gov.
 

Another of my favorites is the ORANGE CARPET® Hummingbird Trumpet-Zauschneria garrettii 'PWWG01S'.Listed on the website as “Rapidly spreading groundcover with masses of orange-scarlet flowers summer to fall. A selection made from seed collected in Idaho, this is the best form of California fuchsia for high altitude or cool climate gardens. Perennial. Xeriscape”. I feel this plant has always been underused. It blooms later in the season when other plants have given up and gone home. The hummers love it too!


Image result for Zauschneria garrettii
Zauschneria garrettii, Photo by High Country Gardens







One of my all-time favorites is the Chocolate Flower-Berlandiera lyrata. According to the website, Chocolate flower is an “Ever blooming native wildflower from the Southwest that produces a continuous succession of dark-eyed, yellow daisies over a compact rosette of foliage. The flowers exude a rich chocolate aroma in the morning hours. Best with minimal water once established. Can reseed. Perennial. Xeriscape”. Who can resist the smell of chocolate every day throughout the summer? This is one of the easiest plants to grow if you ignore it once it’s established. Just worship it from afar and you will both be happy. It can reseed if it is extremely happy; however, you can never have too much chocolate.


Berlandiera lyrata, Photo by ag. arizona.edu
    In closing, the Plant Select website is a great place to find ideas and try out new plants that have been tested in this area. It could save money and frustration in the future, as well as water now. I guess I’ll have to finally give up on growing Indian Paintbrush (Castilleja sp.) and be content with just visiting where it chooses to live.

Thursday, April 30, 2015

Bringing Home the Magic of Disney Horticulture and a Fresh Look at the 2015 EPCOT Flower and Garden Festival.



A few weeks back I was on the phone finalizing some of my plans for my magical vacation to Walt Disney World where I would be attending the EPCOT International Flower and Garden Festival. The cast member on the other end of the line was a really great guy. He then asked me if I had ever been to the Flower and Garden Festival before. I told him not as a guest, but mainly as a former cast member. He asked what I did when I was a cast member and I told him Horticulture at EPCOT and Downtown Disney.
The cast member, Guy, we will call him, asked me what I do now, what I learned and what some of my favorite parts of doing horticulture and taking care of the landscapes at EPCOT were. I told him I learned a lot from my experience, but that what I was taught in school was the science of environmental horticulture. The way Disney does horticulture is not only a science but it also is an art form, what I call "entertainment horticulture." I learned that the way we manage landscapes can vary greatly depending on the nature of the landscape. After all, horticulture is where science meets art.
I shared with him some of the Disney horticulture “magic” and things I learned while part of Disney horticulture which if you read on, I will share some of that with you. Suffice it to say, a lot of fairies use a lot of pixie dust to make the magic happen! I do my best to keep some of the magic alive in my garden today and I wanted to share two things with you today. First the “magic” of Disney’s horticulture and how you can incorporate that into your garden and then the 2015 EPCOT International Flower and garden Festival!



Disney does a fantastic job with roses! One of my favorite varieties is the Knockout rose. They are so easy to maintain! Shear them to prune, and they just keep re-blooming. Although generous amounts of fertilizer and mulch, I mean pixie dust, also help the process along.
They use a variety of warm and cool season flowers to help keep the park fresh all year long. Although the climate in Florida allows for year-round gardening, they do have a rotation for plant material. Every eight weeks, each bed is replanted with new annuals. There are also four season at Walt Disney World for their beds. At Christmas you notice red poinsettias, and red, pink, and white impatiens. In the spring and fall, those get replaced with red, pink, white, and a little purple pentas and red geraniums, which need deadheading on a frequent basis! In the summer Disney plants a lot of caladium. I mean a LOT! We used the standard colors of reds and pinks, but whites were especially popular under the shade of trees. The contrast created by a bed planted with white caladium and a beautiful magnolia tree with its deep green foliage had a remarkable way of brightening up that space and drawing you in! 

Disney has a different color theme for each country in EPCOT's World Showcase as well. For example, Mexico uses warm colors and a more natural looking landscape. Norway uses pastels and white. China is very formal and has little in the way of annuals. Germany uses reds, Italy uses all colors except yellow. The AA as cast members call it, the American Adventure to guests, use...? Red, white, and blue, you guessed it. France uses pastels, and Canada and UK can use pretty much any color in the rainbow. Consider a theme for your garden that consists of two or three colors and stick with that. Too many colors can overwhelm the eye and take away from the dramatic effect of the garden. Use different textures instead if you want to create something more visually appealing.


Disney is also known for the use of hanging baskets and pots. Italy, for example, has pots. Every park has hanging baskets. When you plant your pots or baskets, plant your outside row of flowers on a 45 degree angle facing you, that creates a fuller look as baskets and pots fill in and the flowers face you rather than face the sky where you will be less able to see the full effect of the color.


Where you and I have limited financial resources, we know we are going to buy a plant for an entire season. Knowing it may grow to 12 inches, you and I might buy a four pack and plant them on 6 inch centers, throw some fertilizer down, apply a good three inches of mulch and call it good. Disney knows the plants are not going to be in the landscape long enough to mature. Instead they buy a larger plant and plant the plants closer together, apply some fertilizer, mulch, and viola, an instantly mature full looking landscape. This approach works well for the art form that is Disney’s horticulture but for the average landscape is both economically and environmentally irresponsible.  

Of course, Disney is rumored to have no weeds. I can assure you, this is absolutely positively 100% true! I know, because I pulled every weed you could find. A little Disney secret, err, magic is proper mulching techniques greatly helped keep weeds down! I’d like to point out; Disney used ORGANIC mulch- pine needles, chipped wood, etc. No rock mulch to be found on Disney property. Why? Because of how bad it is for the environment, and it simply is not “show quality.”

Elsa works her magic to create the effect of frozen fractals (flowers) all around.

So now that you know some of the magic, what about the EPCOT Flower and Garden Festival? I spent some time walking around EPCOT. It’s a sight to behold as EPCOT is filled with millions of blooms and over 100 topiaries! This year the theme was "EPCOT Fresh" and they incorporated edibles into the landscape.



The flower fields are replaced completely during the show. During the year, this entire berm is Bermuda grass. The sod is cut and removed for the Flower and Garden Festival. New sod is laid after the show. During the show 4 full time cast members spend their early mornings weeding and deadheading the flow field which contains nearly 700,000 annual plants.


EPCOT always looks beautiful, but after experiencing the Flower and Garden Festival, EPCOT feels insipid when the festival ends and the park’s landscapes return to normal. What makes the festival so grand isn’t just the colorful flowers planted in beds throughout Future World around the World Showcase, but also the topiary creations which bring your favorite Disney Characters to life (mine is Peter Pan) as well as the tours, horticulture classes, and presentations offered by many knowledgeable and well respected individuals in the hort industry. 


Over in Garden Town gardening programs are offered every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday from 11-4. Programs feature information provided from Disney Gardeners, Great American Gardeners, and to the credit of Disney, University of Florida Master Gardeners and Extension Agents from Land Grant Universities who provide research based gardening solutions for your life in the form of latest trends in home gardening, techniques to help you be a successful gardener, as well as some of the Disney Horticulture secrets with some very fun and creative hands on activities that will engage gardeners of all ages. 

Disney also has an Ask an Expert station for you to stop and get one on one advice about your garden for those in Extension!


Other things that make this festival so wonderful is that is really truly is designed for all ages. Young children can enjoy the butterfly garden, the cactus garden that recreates radiator springs, mini gardens all which tell a story, and other kid-friendly activities all throughout EPCOT. Adults; as well as all the learning, there is music from many artists, including the Village People. (Tony, that’s for you.) Cooking and food demonstrations on how to cook what you grow. (Seriously, what do I do with this Kohlrabi? Nasturtium- do you eat that? Why is there and orchid flower on my plate?) As well as many amazing foods and drinks to try, all inspired by the fruits, flowers, and veggies you grow in the garden!



Annuals may be incorporated into topiaries to provide more colorful flowing and dimension in the characters. Annuals are changed out on some topiaries. Cool season annuals such as Violas and Pansies are used and changed out for impatiens and other plants that hold up to the florida heat later in the season.

Disney has moved away from the old hedged style topiaries due to the high level of maintenance.

Finneas and Ferb receives full sun all day long, where other topiaries may receive mostly shade. Watering and replacement of plant material are dependent upon environmental factors.




Simba is actually made of painted reindeer moss while the feet and arms of Rafiki are made of palm boots.
A steel frame provides the support for Snow White's ficus dress.

Each topiary has it's own irrigation system built into the frame. Chicken wire issued to provide support for sphagnum peat moss and the plugs of creeping figs. Total growing on time is approximately two months. Occasionally, figs need to be trimmed or replugged.
Buzz Lightyear is staged in front on Mission Space, adding to the theme and atmosphere of the attraction.
Tinker bell adds to the Butterfly House.
A favorite among fairies and children alike!


Additional annuals are added to the Canada Pavilion
 to simulate Butchardt Garden.
I have to pay homage to my 'friend' Peter Pan.
Look up to find him though.
Disney has learned the art of directing your eye in different directions
and optical illusion.
Disney uses flowers around the topiaries
to continue
to paint a scene.
In this case, blue salvia helps to create
the illusion that
Tic-Toc Croc is in water.